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Introduction 1
  1. Background on CASE tools 1
  2. Research Method 2
  3. Hypothesis and Contributions 5
  4. Organization of the Dissertation 6
Theories of Designers' Cognitive Needs 7
  1. Theories of Design Decision-Making 8
  2. Reflection-In-Action 8
  3. Opportunistic Design 10
  4. Geneplore 14
  5. Theories of Human Memory 15
  6. Associative Recall 15
  7. Limited Short-Term Memory 17
  8. Cognitive Fixation 19
  9. Limited Knowledge 21
  10. Mental Biases 22
  11. Design Visualization Theories 23
  12. Comprehension and Problem Solving 23
  13. Secondary Notation 26
  14. Viewing as an Acquired Skill 28
  15. User Interface Guidelines 28
  16. Style Guidelines and Usability Heuristics 28
  17. Fitts' Law 31
Previous Work in Cognitive Features for Design Tools 33
  1. Previous Work on Design Critiquing Systems 33
  2. Definitions of Design Critiquing Systems 33
  3. Previous Work on Critiquing Processes 35
  4. Phases of the ADAIR Process 36
  5. Comparison of Critiquing Systems 39
  6. State of the Art of Critiquing Systems 48
Proposed Cognitive Features 50
  1. Knowledge Support Features 54
  2. Design Critics and Criticism Control Mechanisms 54
  3. Non-modal Wizards 59
  4. Context Sensitive Checklists 64
  5. Design History 67
  6. Process Support Features 71
  7. Dynamic "To Do" List and Clarifiers 71
  8. Opportunistic Search Utility 75
  9. Opportunistic Table Views 78
  10. Visualization Support Features 80
  11. Navigational Perspectives 80
  12. The Broom Alignment Tool 86
  13. Model-based Layout 92
  14. Construction Support Features 97
  15. Selection-Action Buttons 97
  16. Create Multiple 100
  17. Visual Blender 108
Usage Scenario 112
  1. Scene 1: Initial Construction, Error Detection, and Correction 113
  2. Scene 2: Cleaning up the Design to Communicate Intent 117
  3. Scene 3: Answering Questions that Arise During Design 120
  4. Scene 4: Considering the Important Issues 125
  5. Scene 5: Resolving Open Issues Before Reaching a Milestone 128
  6. Discussion 130
Heuristic Evaluation of Cognitive Features 132
  1. Walkthrough of "To Do" List and Clarifiers 135
  2. Walkthrough of Non-modal Wizards 137
  3. Walkthrough of Context Sensitive Checklists 140
  4. Walkthrough of Design History 142
  5. Walkthrough of Opportunistic Search Utility 143
  6. Walkthrough of Opportunistic Table Views 146
  7. Walkthrough of Navigational Perspectives 149
  8. Walkthrough of Broom Alignment Tool 151
  9. Walkthrough of Model-based Layout 154
  10. Walkthrough of Selection-Action Buttons 157
  11. Walkthrough of Create Multiple 159
  12. Discussion and Validation 162
Empirical Evaluation of
Cognitive Features 168
  1. Pilot User Study 168
  2. Broom User Study 171
  3. Construction User Study 174
  4. Classroom Usage 176
  5. Internet Usage 179
A Scalable, Reusable Infrastructure 184
  1. Graph Editing Framework 185
  2. Introduction 185
  3. Design Overview of GEF 186
  4. Implementation of Multiple Diagrammatic Views 189
  5. Implementation of the Broom Alignment Tool 190
  6. Implementation of Selection-Action Buttons 192
  7. Argo Kernel 192
  8. Introduction 192
  9. Design Overview of the Argo Kernel 193
  10. Implementation of Design Critics and Criticism Control
              Mechanisms 196
  11. Implementation of Checklists 199
  12. Implementation of Wizards 200
  13. Views and Navigation 201
  14. Introduction 201
  15. Design Overview of Argo/UML Views and Navigation 202
  16. Implementation of Navigational Perspectives 203
  17. Implementation of the Dynamic "To Do" List and Clarifiers 204
  18. Implementation of Opportunistic Table Views 205
  19. Implementation of Opportunistic Search 207
  20. Design Representation and Code Generation 209
  21. Introduction 209
  22. Design Overview of Design Representation and Code Generation 209
  23. Implementation of the UML Meta-Model 210
  24. Implementation of XMI and PGML File Formats 212
  25. Implementation of Code Generation 214
Conclusion 217
  1. Reflections on the Approach 217
  2. Review of Contributions 219
  3. Potential Extensions 220
References 222